The Austro-Hungarian Empire (different periods, before 1918). Historical Maps and Plans

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Austria-Hungary is one of the most represented past countries in this vintage map collection. The well-mapped Austro-Hungarian Empire existed from 1867 to 1918. It was the result of the union of the two independent neighboring kingdoms ruled homogenously by the House of Habsburg with the system of ‘Dual Monarchy’. With an area of 621,538 square kilometers Austria-Hungary was the second largest European state after the Russian Empire. The large country was also densely populated with an average population of 51.3 million according to the 1910 census. The population was divided in accordance to religion, language and ethnicity. Religion wise 66% of the population was Roman Catholic enjoying some exclusive privileges followed by the Greek Catholics, Eastern orthodox, Calvinists, Evangelicals and the Muslims. In terms of language the majority were the German speakers who lived in the upper and lower Austria, Styria, Tyrol, Krajina, Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, Silesia and Carinthia.

As seen on the old maps of Austria-Hingary, the empire was located at the heart of the continent of Europe. It shared its borders with Switzerland to the west, Serbia to the south, Germany to the northwest, Romania to the southeast, Russia to the northeast and Italy to the southwest. Carpathian Mountains occupied the north eastern part of the empire while the Dinaric Alps lay close to the Adriatic Sea. In accordance to the compromise of 1867, the Habsburg Empire comprised of two primary states of Austria and Hungary.

The kingdom of Hungary was constitutionally divided in itself into Hungary proper and Croatia. Croatia and Polish Galicia enjoyed autonomy with their own unique form of government. Vienna was the empire’s prime capital along with Budapest. The system of dual monarchy was a table turner for the economic aspect of the unified country. The advancement in applied science accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The capitalist system of production replaced medieval establishments. Economic abundance fostered in Vienna. In the later years of the nineteenth century, economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands.

Historical maps of the Austro-Hungarian Empire evidence vast development of its railways. The system of transportation saw here a new dawn with their introduction and expansion. Railways allowed the Empire to integrate its economy more than previously possible, when transportation was dependent on a water body. The railroad greatly reduced the transportation cost throughout the empire, making it possible for new products in the market from the other lands of dual monarchy. Almost all of major railways were built in the kingdom of Hungary and all its private railway ownership was nationalized for the sake of efficiency. In 1900 a canal was supposed to be built linking the river Danube to the Adriatic Sea but the construction never took place.

The First World War began with Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. The consequence was disastrous as the empire lost its men, resources and territories. It could never recover from its loss. The period of Revolution and Intervention began in Austria- Hungary after the World War was over. The people of the nation lost their faith in their allies. There was an outbreak of nationalism which led to declaration of independence in south-central Europe after November 1918.

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Agram (Zagreb), city map. Agram environs, 1913
8.06 x 5.47 inch, 205 x 139 mm
Ampezzo River Valley map, 1906
8.2 x 6.05 inch, 209 x 154 mm
Aquileja and Grado town plans, 1911
4.04 x 6 inch, 103 x 153 mm
Arco, Riva and their environs map, 1906
3.99 x 5.98 inch, 102 x 152 mm
Arco, Riva and their environs map, 1911
4.02 x 6.04 inch, 103 x 154 mm
Austria on the General and Railway Map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Successor States (in Czech), 1920
General and Railway Map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Successor States (in Czech), 1920
26.97 x 20.62 inch, 685 x 524 mm
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